Today in History – January 31

Major John C. Frémont (1813-90), popularly admired for his mapmaking expeditions to the West, was court-martialed on grounds of mutiny and disobeying orders on January 31, 1848. General Stephen Kearny brought charges against Frémont when a dispute arose over who held governing authority in California—a region that had been recently ceded to the United States by Mexico in accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo .

General John C. Frémont, Illustration. In Eldorado; or, California As Seen By a Pioneer, 1850-1900, by D.A. Shaw. Los Angeles, Cal.: B.R. Baumgardt & Co., 1900. Chapter IV, p48. California As I Saw It: First-Person Narratives of California’s Early Years, 1849 to 1900. General Collections

In recognition of his role in the occupation of California, Commodore Robert F. Stockton appointed Frémont military governor of California in 1847. Meanwhile, federal authorities sent General Kearny to California to establish a government. Tension developed between Kearny and Stockton, with Frémont siding with Stockton. In August 1847, Kearny ordered Frémont arrested and charged with insubordination. Frémont was found guilty by a court martial and subjected to penalties, including removal from the army. Although this decision was reversed by President James K. Polk, Frémont chose to resign his commission.

In spite of this episode, Frémont retained his popularity and esteem with the American public. He and his wife Jesse Benton Frémont, daughter of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, remained in California at their Mariposa County estate. During the Gold Rush, Frémont became a multimillionaire. His well-publicized explorations of the West and his exploits in California’s rebellion against Mexico contributed to his election as one of California’s first senators in 1850.

In 1855, the Frémonts settled in New York. Frémont had established a reputation as an outspoken abolitionist. On June 17, 1856, the Republican Party nominated Frémont as their first presidential candidate. Frémont campaigned as the “Pathfinder” who would lead the country out of the shame of slavery.

Col. John C. Frémont, Republican Candidate for the President of the United States. New York: Baker & Godwin, c1856. Cartoon Prints, American. Prints & Photographs Division
Jno[sic] C. Frémont and Wm L. Dayton. The Champions of Freedom!… Marcus A. Root, photographer; C.E. Lewis(Firm), lithographer. [Buffalo: C.E. Lewis], c1856. Cartoon Prints, American. Prints & Photographs Division
Col. Frémont Planting the American Standard on the Rocky Mountains. [New York: Baker & Godwin], c1856. Cartoon Prints, American. Prints & Photographs Division

Lyrics such as these typified the presidential campaign songs of the first Republican Party ticket:

Journeyer in the distant mountains,
O‘er the land has spread thy fame;
Hope is opening FREEDOM’S fountains,
Neath the influence of thy name.

Come and rescue Fair Columbia

From her shame.
Raise on high fair Freedom’s banner.
Ensign of the brave and true,
Midst the din of party clamour
Onward “LEAD” the battle through,
Never weary,
Till we’ve routed slavery’s crew.

Freedom’s Songs! For the Campaign of 1856! John C. Frémont. An Acrostic.” Boston: Higgins & Bradley, c1856. America Singing: Nineteenth-Century Song Sheets. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Although Frémont lost to Democrat James Buchanan, he continued his efforts on behalf of emancipation. When the Civil War broke out, he was again commissioned as Major-General of the Union Army, stationed in St. Louis, Missouri. When secessionist rebellion flared, Frémont proclaimed martial law, assumed governance of the state, and announced the emancipation of all slaves of those Missourians who had taken arms against the United States.

President Lincoln approved of Frémont’s other measures against the rebellion, but he considered emancipation premature and asked Frémont to withdraw his proclamation. When Frémont refused, Lincoln issued a Public Order annulling the act.

Carte d’visite: Fremont, John Charles. Carte d’visite, with Frémont’s signature on verso. Civil War Photograph Album, ca. 1861-65.(James Wadsworth Family Papers) Manuscript Division

After accusations of misadministration in Missouri, Frémont came under severe attack and was again relieved of his command. His supporters maintained the attack was unjust, the result of political intrigue.

In 1864, he was again considered for the Republican presidential nomination. Popular but controversial, Frémont decided that his bid for the office would cause division within the party. He retired from public life and returned to the West.

Grand Banner of the Radical Democracy, for 1864. [Portrait of Presidential Nominee John C. Fremont and His Running Mate John Cochrane]. New York: Currier & Ives, c1864. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

From 1878 to 1883, Frémont held public office again as appointed governor of the territory of Arizona. Just months before his death on July 13, 1890, Congress granted him a pension, acknowledging the importance of Frémont’s early explorations of the West.

Sunset (California Scenery). Albert Bierstadt, artist; Chromolithograph published by L. Prang & Co., 1864. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division
[Cathedral Rock Yosemite Valley, Calif.] Carleton E. Watkins, photographer, ca. [1865]. The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850 to 1920. Prints & Photographs Division

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Florida Senate, House $1.4 billion apart on budget proposals

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. (AP) — The Florida Senate and House released budget proposals Thursday that are about $1.4 billion apart, leaving the chambers with less than six weeks to work out the differences.

The Senate is seeking $92.8 billion for the fiscal year that begins July 1, while the House is proposing a $91.4 spending plan. In total dollars, at least, the House proposal is close to the $91.4 billion recommendation Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis announced in November. The current state budget is just under $91 billion.

All three proposals include money to raise teachers’ minimum salaries, with the Senate and House proposing $500 million and DeSantis recommending $600 million.

“The Senate budget builds on our commitment to elevate the teachers and school personnel who serve students in our neighborhood public schools,” Senate President Bill Galvano said in a news release announcing the proposal. “Our proposed Senate budget raises per-student funding to an unprecedented level.”

Overall, the Senate is proposing $22.6 billion for public schools and the House is seeking $22.5 billion.

The Senate proposal is an increase of nearly $763 million for schools, or an additional $181.29 per student over the current budget.

The House released its 424-page budget proposal after business hours Thursday with no comment or summary.

The Senate is calling for a 3% across the board raise for state employees, while DeSantis isn’t proposing state worker raises. The Senate proposal also calls for the state picking up the full increase in state employees’ health insurance costs rather than passing it along to workers. The increase is expected to be $640 for an individual and $1,440 for family coverage.

The Senate proposal seeks $125 million for the Florida Forever program to buy conservation land, $25 million more than DeSantis is requesting. The Senate also is seeking about $319 million for Everglades restoration, slightly less than the governor is proposing.

The Senate and DeSantis proposals both include $50 million for Visit Florida, the state’s tourism marketing agency. The House budget includes no money for the agency. House Speaker Jose Oliva has made it clear he wants to eliminate the agency.

The House and Senate have until March 10 to work out differences if they want to end their annual 60-day session on time. Once the Legislature approves the budget, DeSantis can veto individual lines in it.

———

This story has corrected that Gov. DeSantis is proposing $600 million for teacher raises.

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Plantation Middle School Hosts 2nd Annual Chinese New Year Celebration

January 30, 2020

Imagine what it would be like to be in China as the country celebrates the start of a new year. That’s what students from Plantation Middle School, who have been learning the Chinese language and culture, will be doing as they host the second annual Chinese New Year Celebration.

WHO:                   
Students from Plantation Middle School, Mirror Lake Elementary School and Peters Elementary School 

WHAT:                 
A fun-filled Chinese New Year celebration! Wearing traditional Chinese attire and dancing to the sound of ancient Chinese music, students will participate in cultural lion dancing, dragon dancing, and ribbon and fan dancing while surrounded by lanterns customary to China. Interactive booths allow attendees to speak with students in Chinese and learn about Chinese calligraphy, food, music, writing, games and sports. Special guests include students from Mirror Lake Elementary School and Peters Elementary School, who have been invited to participate in the celebration.   

WHERE:                
Plantation Middle School 
6600 W. Sunrise Blvd.,
Plantation, FL 33313

WHEN:                  
Friday, January 31, 2020, at 2:15 p.m.
                               

WHY:                    
Plantation Middle School offers students the opportunity to learn the Chinese language. The school obtained a grant through the Teacher of Critical Languages Program (TCLP), which is designed to increase the study and acquisition of important world languages in U.S. schools. This program allows schools to strengthen their teaching of Mandarin and Arabic by bringing Chinese, Egyptian and Moroccan teachers to the U.S. to teach their native languages and culture for an academic year. 

 

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ABOUT BROWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS

“Committed to educating all students to reach their highest potential.”

Broward County Public Schools (BCPS) is the sixth-largest school district in the nation and the second-largest in the state of Florida. BCPS is Florida’s first fully accredited school system since 1962. BCPS has nearly 270,000 students and approximately 175,000 adult students in 241 schools, centers and technical colleges, and 89 charter schools. BCPS serves a diverse student population, with students representing 204 different countries and 191 different languages. To connect with BCPS, visit browardschools.com, follow us on Twitter @browardschools, on Facebook at facebook.com/browardschools.com and download the free BCPS mobile app.

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British navy sinks the German battleship Bismarck

Year
1941
Month Day
May 27

On May 27, 1941, the British navy sinks the German battleship Bismarck in the North Atlantic near France. The German death toll was more than 2,000.

On February 14, 1939, the 823-foot Bismarck was launched at Hamburg. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler hoped that the state-of-the-art battleship would herald the rebirth of the German surface battle fleet. However, after the outbreak of war, Britain closely guarded ocean routes from Germany to the Atlantic Ocean, and only U-boats moved freely through the war zone.

In May 1941, the order was given for the Bismarck to break out into the Atlantic. Once in the safety of the open ocean, the battleship would be almost impossible to track down, all the while wreaking havoc on Allied convoys to Britain. Learning of its movement, Britain sent almost the entire British Home Fleet in pursuit. On May 24, the British battle cruiser Hood and battleship Prince of Wales intercepted it near Iceland. In a ferocious battle, the Hood exploded and sank, and all but three of the 1,421 crewmen were killed. The Bismarck escaped, but because it was leaking fuel it fled for occupied France. 

On May 26, the ship was sighted and crippled by British aircraft, and on May 27 three British warships descended on the Bismarck, inflicting heavy damage. By mid-morning, the pride of the German navy had become a floating wreck with numerous fires aboard, unable to steer and with her guns almost useless because she was listing badly to port. Soon, the command went out to scuttle the ship, and the Bismarck quickly sank. Of a 2,221-man crew, only 115 survived.

READ MORE: The Pictures that Defined World War II 

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Today in History – January 30

On January 30, 1815, President James Madison approved an act of Congress appropriating $23,950 to purchase Thomas Jefferson’s library of 6,487 volumes.

“…there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer.”

Thomas Jefferson to Samuel H. Smith, September 21, 1814. Series 1: General Correspondence, 1651-1827. Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606 to 1827. Manuscript Division

Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States. Gilbert Stuart, artist. [Boston: Pendleton’s Lithography, on stone by Maurin, ca1825-1828]. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division
James Madison, fourth president of the United States. Gilbert Stuart, artist. Pendleton’s Lithography, [1828?]. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

After capturing Washington, D.C. in 1814, the British burned the U.S. Capitol, destroying the Library of Congress and its 3,000-volume collection. Thomas Jefferson, in retirement at Monticello, offered to sell his personal library to the Library Committee of Congress in order to rebuild the collection of the Congressional Library.

Thomas Jefferson to George Watterston (1783-1854), May 7, 1815. Memory Gallery A. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division

Jefferson’s library not only included more than twice the number of volumes as had been destroyed, it expanded the scope of the library beyond its previous topics—law, economics, and history—to include a wide variety of subjects in several languages. Divided into the categories Memory, Reason, and Imagination—which Jefferson translated to “History,” “Philosophy,” and “Fine Arts”—today, Thomas Jefferson’s library is part of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division and is currently on public exhibit in the Thomas Jefferson Building.

Anticipating the objection that his collection might be too comprehensive, he argued, “I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection; there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer.”

Thomas Jefferson’s Library. Preface. In Jefferson’s Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress, by John Y. Cole. Reid Baker, photographer.

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Florida House OKs bill to protect student athletes from heat

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. (AP) — Public schools in Florida would be required to have immediate access to emergency cooling tubs and other life-saving equipment to save student athletes from deadly heat strokes, under legislation approved Wednesday in the state House.

Lawmakers voted unanimously to advance the legislation, which now awaits action by the Florida Senate.

More than 460 student athletes in Florida were treated for exertional heat stroke during the 2017-18 school year, according to state officials.

Florida leads the nation in high school student athlete deaths from exertional heat stroke, with four since 2011.

The most recent heat-related death of a student athlete in Florida occurred in the summer of 2017, when a South Florida 16-year-old, Zach Martin, collapsed during football practice.

His mother, Laurie Giordano, has been lobbying for rules to protect other student athletes.

“I’m incredibly grateful to the House for recognizing it for the being the life-saver that it is,” Giordano said following the vote.

Between 1995 and 2019, 47 high school football players nationwide died from heat stroke or related complications. Nearly all of those fatalities happened during routine practices, according to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research.

Florida’s public schools are not currently required to have life-saving devices and equipment available at the sidelines during practice to respond and prevent heat-related injuries in student athletes. That includes the absence of tubs — or even plastic swimming pools — that can be used to help quickly cool student athletes showing signs of heat stress.

What’s more, many coaches and other team personnel lack training on how to recognize exertional heat stroke, or EHS, and how to administer emergency care.

At a minimum, the legislation would require schools to to have containers, such as portable tubs and inexpensive inflatable kiddie pools, that can be filled with cold water to submerge and rapidly cool an overheating student.

Heat strokes are often preventable if immediate treatment is given. Even if heat stroke doesn’t lead to death, prolonged absence of help can produce severe brain damage or other harm internal organs.

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Piper High School Students Win All-Expenses Paid Trip for National Competition in New York

January 29, 2019

WHO:        
Piper High School Students, Teachers and Administrators, Representatives from Virtual Enterprises International (VEI) and Representatives from HSBC Bank

WHAT:      
A special announcement for Piper High School! The school is being honored as one of four winning schools in the nation selected as an HSBC Bank Opportunity Fund Winner. This award provides all-expenses paid trips for eight Piper High School students in the school’s Virtual Enterprise program and two chaperones to participate in the national 2020 VEI Youth Business Summit experience in New York. Representatives from VEI and HSBC Bank will announce the award to the students. 

WHEN:      
Thursday, January 30, 2020
9 a.m.

WHERE:  
Piper High School, Virtual Enterprise Classroom
8000 NW 44th Street
Sunrise, FL 33351

WHY:        
The VEI Youth Business Summit is a one-of-a-kind global business convention for students. During a dynamic week of business competitions, leadership events and professional networking, the rising talent from middle and high schools around the world display the professional skills and business insight they have developed by running a VEI company during the school year.

The VEI program prepares students for successful futures by transforming school classes into companies and bridging the divide between the classroom and the working world. Students launch and operate businesses in a virtual environment with peers from around the world.

 

Media are Invited to Cover this Event.

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ABOUT BROWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS

“Committed to educating all students to reach their highest potential.”

Broward County Public Schools (BCPS) is the sixth-largest school district in the nation and the second-largest in the state of Florida. BCPS is Florida’s first fully accredited school system since 1962. BCPS has nearly 270,000 students and approximately 175,000 adult students in 241 schools, centers and technical colleges, and 89 charter schools. BCPS serves a diverse student population, with students representing 204 different countries and 191 different languages. To connect with BCPS, visit browardschools.com, follow us on Twitter @browardschools, on Facebook at facebook.com/browardschools.com and download the free BCPS mobile app.

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Today in History – January 29

Kansas entered the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861. About two hundred years earlier the French Jesuit priests, Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet, were among the region’s earliest European explorers. A map drawn by Marquette in 1673 indicated that the Kanza, Ouchage (Osage), and Paneassa (Pawnee) tribes dominated the area that would become Kansas.

Bird’s Eye View of the City of Topeka, the Capital of Kansas 1869. Drawn by A. Ruger; Chicago: Chicago Lithographing Co., 1869. Panoramic Maps. Geography & Map Division

The United States acquired Kansas in 1803 from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase. During its early years as a U.S. possession, the area was part of Indian Territory and was used by the federal government to relocate tribal peoples. In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act External allowed the residents to decide if theirs would be a free or slave state.

Work Horses Near Junction City, Kansas. John Vachon, photographer, [1942 or 1943]. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

Both North and South sent settlers to the territory, giving rise to the sobriquet “Bleeding Kansas” External as violence erupted out of ideological differences regarding slavery. Learn more about the historical context of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in “Conflict of Abolition and Slavery” and more about the experience of African-Americans in Kansas in “Nicodemus, Kansas“, two features in the online exhibition The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History & Culture.

A fairly continuous plain, Kansas rises in elevation from 700 feet in the southeast to 4,000 feet at its western border. Mr. Art Botsford, interviewed on December 27, 1938, for the collection American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940, recalled his first experience of gazing out across the Kansas plain:

I wasn’t there but a little while when I went to help a feller shingle a roof. It was about eight o’clock in the mornin’, and I was sittin’ there on the roof just lookin’ out at those miles and miles of prairies, and way off in the distance I see somethin’ about the size of a cigar standin’ up on the horizon. It didn’t seem to get no bigger and after I watched it a while I says to the feller, ‘Look at that thing out there, don’t it look funny.’ He looked where I was pointin’ and he says ‘Know what that is? That’s the freight train comin’ in.’ Well, we worked all mornin’ and we went in and was eatin’ dinner when we heard that train pull into the depot.

Mr. Botsford on Travel—Kansas,” Art Botsford, Interviewee; Francis Donovan, Interviewer; Thomaston, Conn., December 27, 1938. American Life Histories: Manuscripts for the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division

While writers were gathering stories of American lives during the Great Depression, Sidney Robertson Cowell was recording songs for the WPA California Folk Music Project. A few days prior to Mr. Botsford’s interview, Cowell recorded George Vinton Graham in California performing “Oh, They Told Me Out in Kansas.” Search the collection California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties using the term Kansas to find this and other recordings.

1994 Kansas State Winner. Vivian R. Singer, quiltmaker; Iola, Kansas, December 1, 1992-August 21, 1993. Quilts and Quiltmaking in America, 1978 to 1996. American Folklife Center

The collection Quilts and Quiltmaking in America, 1978 to 1996 contains photographs of award-winning quilts from every state in the Union. Search on the term Kansas to view these treasures.

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Bank Stops Florida Voucher Program Donations Over Anti-Gay Schools

Orlando, Fla.

A bank says it will stop donating millions of dollars to Florida’s private school voucher program after reports that some schools in the program discriminate against LGBTQ students.

In a tweet to a Florida lawmaker on Tuesday, Fifth Third Bank said it has told officials with the state voucher program it will stop participating.

“We have communicated with program officials that we will not be contributing again until more inclusive policies have been adopted by all participating schools to protect the sexual orientation of all our students,” the Ohio-based bank tweeted to state Rep. Carlos Guillermo Smith.


See Also: What Are School Vouchers and How Do They Work?


The decision comes after an Orlando Sentinel investigation found that 156 private Christian schools with anti-gay views educated more than 20,800 students with tuition paid for by state scholarships. Of those, the report said, 83 refused to admit LGBTQ students or would expel them if their sexual orientation or gender identity were discovered.

The investigation also found that many companies with pro-LGBTQ policies had donated to the program in exchange for write-offs on their state tax bills. Among them was Fifth Third Bank, which contributed $5.4 million in 2018 to the program.

An email seeking comment from the Florida Department of Education didn’t get an immediate response on Wednesday.

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Attention Families: The 2020/21 School Choice Application Deadline is Approaching Deadline is Wednesday, February 5, 2020

January 28, 2020

School Choice

Attention parents and guardians! If you are interested in submitting School Choice applications for the 2020/21 school year, the deadline is Wednesday, February 5, 2020.

Broward County Public Schools (BCPS) is a national leader for offering innovative, personalized learning programs to meet students’ interests and prepare them for college and careers. Parents and guardians are encouraged to explore all of the District’s School Choice options available for families. The School Choice application window, which opened December 2, 2019, provides opportunities to apply for a magnet school, Nova school or school reassignment. 

To learn more about the many educational options available across BCPS and to apply online, visit the School Choice website at browardschools.com/schoolchoice. Families can explore their options in several ways, such as by student interest, grade level and by individual school name.

For assistance with School Choice, parents and guardians can contact the Office of School Choice (formerly the department of Demographics & Student Assignments) at 754-321-2480. 

 

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ABOUT BROWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS

“Committed to educating all students to reach their highest potential.”

Broward County Public Schools (BCPS) is the sixth-largest school district in the nation and the second-largest in the state of Florida. BCPS is Florida’s first fully accredited school system since 1962. BCPS has nearly 270,000 students and approximately 175,000 adult students in 241 schools, centers and technical colleges, and 89 charter schools. BCPS serves a diverse student population, with students representing 204 different countries and 191 different languages. To connect with BCPS, visit browardschools.com, follow us on Twitter @browardschools, on Facebook at facebook.com/browardschools.com and download the free BCPS mobile app.

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